The city saw a political decline during the ensuing Emirate of Harar, only regaining some significance in the Khedivate of Egypt period.During the Ethiopian Empire, the city decayed while maintaining a certain cultural prestige. Called Gēy ("the City") by its inhabitants, Harar emerged as the center of Islamic culture and religion in the Horn of Africa during end of the Middle Ages. Warren is a clinical psychologist and author of eight books on love, marriage and emotional health.
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For centuries, Harar has been a major commercial centre, linked by the trade routes with the rest of Ethiopia, the entire Horn of Africa, the Arabian Peninsula, and, through its ports, the outside world.
Harar Jugol, the old walled city, was listed as a World Heritage Site in 2006 by UNESCO in recognition of its cultural heritage.
According to the Fath Madinat Harar, an unpublished history of the city in the 13th century, the cleric Abadir Umar ar-Rida, along with several other religious leaders, came from the Arabian Peninsula to settle in Harar circa 612H (1216 CE). During the Middle Ages, Harar was part of the Adal Sultanate, becoming its capital in 1520 under Sultan Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad. The local culture flourished, and many poets lived and wrote there.
It also became known for coffee, weaving, basketry and bookbinding.