Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are a group of more than 200 related viruses.
More than 40 HPV types can be easily spread through direct sexual contact, from the skin and mucous membranes of infected people to the skin and mucous membranes of their partners.
We found tissue-associated sex-biased expression of genes related to pigmentation, signal transduction, and spermatogenesis in males; and growth, cell-division, extra-cellular matrix organization, nutrient transport, and folliculogenesis in females.
While most sex-biased genes were randomly distributed across linkage groups, we observed accumulation of ovary-biased genes on the sex linkage group, LG12.
In fact, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that more than 90% and 80%, respectively, of sexually active men and women will be infected with at least one type of HPV at some point in their lives (5).
Around one-half of these infections are with a high-risk HPV type (6).
Most high-risk HPV infections occur without any symptoms, go away within 1 to 2 years, and do not cause cancer.
Some HPV infections, however, can persist for many years.
Therefore, the development of sex-specific traits is thought to be predominantly accomplished by sex-specific gene expression ) have shown that a significant fraction of autosomal genes are differentially expressed between the sexes in their reproductive as well as non-reproductive tissues.
Sexually dimorphic phenotypes are generally associated with differential gene expression between the sexes.
The study of molecular evolution and genomic location of these differentially expressed, or sex-biased, genes is important for understanding inter-sexual divergence under sex-specific selection pressures.
Diagram of a replicated and condensed metaphase eukaryotic chromosome.
(1) Chromatid – one of the two identical parts of the chromosome after S phase. A chromosome (from ancient Greek: χρωμόσωμα, chromosoma, chroma means color, soma means body) is a DNA molecule with part or all of the genetic material (genome) of an organism.